The Hamilton a.k.a. Victoria
The Hamilton a.k.a. Victoria

In the period before U.S. entry in WW1. Several companies guessed at the future needs of the U.S. Army and the possiblity of a U.S. entry into the European conflict. This tank was built by the Oakland Motor Company (the modern Pontiac) to British specifications in 1916. It used the same narrow tracks as the Ford 3 ton. It was not accepted.


Ford 3 ton---Ford 3 ton---Ford 3 ton---Ford 3 ton tank at the Patton Museum in 1991. - Bill Kirk's private collection.

Ford 3 ton tank at the Patton Museum in Fort Knox. - Photo courtesy of Dragomir St. Stoikov.---Ford 3 ton tank at the Patton Museum in Fort Knox. - Photo courtesy of Dragomir St. Stoikov.---Photo courtesy of Dr. André Louis Maurois.---Ford 3 ton - author unknown

Shown here is the Ford 3 ton tank located at the Patton Museum. I was advised the interior of the tank, including the engine, was not original. I was then told that a "engine package" sits at the Harrah Auto Museum in Nevada. Perhaps Harrah's would be kind enough to loan it or donate it to the Patton Museum! Anybody out there care to write a letter? The tank is so light that the reason for the chain is to keep people from moving it. Charles Lemons, of the museum, told me how he came out into the visitor area one day to find the visiting Boy Scouts were playing with the vehicle and moving it all over. I tried it myself and with one arm got the thing "rocking" back and forth. The tracks are flimsy in my opinion and would not have held up under combat conditions. I was told that they came off rather easily. - Photo by Bill Kirk---Shown here is the Ford 3 ton tank located at the Patton Museum. I was advised the interior of the tank, including the engine, was not original. I was then told that a "engine package" sits at the Harrah Auto Museum in Nevada. Perhaps Harrah's would be kind enough to loan it or donate it to the Patton Museum! Anybody out there care to write a letter? The tank is so light that the reason for the chain is to keep people from moving it. Charles Lemons, of the museum, told me how he came out into the visitor area one day to find the visiting Boy Scouts were playing with the vehicle and moving it all over. I tried it myself and with one arm got the thing "rocking" back and forth. The tracks are flimsy in my opinion and would not have held up under combat conditions. I was told that they came off rather easily. - Photo by Bill Kirk---Photo submitted by Mark Holloway---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.
The Ford 3 Ton

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 3.1tons
Dimensions length with tail 13' 10"
width 5' 3"
height 5' 3"
Armor .5"
Armament 1 x .30cal Browning 1919
Powerplant 2 x Ford model T engines
Performance maximum road speed (8 mph)

Ford 3 man a.k.a. U.S. Mark I
The Ford 3 man a.k.a. U.S. Mark I

Results in Europe showed a need for a heavier, simpler,  tank than the FT17. This tank was to mount a 37mm main gun. Only a poor center of gravity (the rear was too heavy) halted this tank before production.

Specifications
Crew 3
Weight 7.5tons
Dimensions length with tail 16'
width 6.5'
height 7' 9"
Armor 3/5"
Armament 37mm main gun 1 x .30cal Browning
Powerplant 6cyl Hudson 60hp

Photo courtesy of Barbara Taylor, Museum Exhibits Specialist, of the Fort George G. Meade Museum.
Renault FT17 Light Tank

This was the only light tank that Americans used in Europe during WW1. The American M1917 was not ready in time before the war ended. There is speculation that the tank shown above at Ft. Meade Museum is the only remaining USA owned FT17 that ever saw combat being manned by American soldiers.


M1917A1---M1917 radio tank - a very close copy of the French TSF---American RenaultFT17 - This is a picture of the Renault tank from which the U.S. M1917 was copied.---M1917 at the Patton Museum in 1991. - Bill Kirk's private collection.

M1917 Ft. Brown, Tx. - Photo submission by Mark Holloway.---M1917 Ft. Brown, Tx. - Photo submission by Mark Holloway.---Photo contribution by Mark Holloway---Photo submission by Mark Holloway.

M1917 being tested by Sereno Brett in 1927. Brett was Patton's 2nd in command during WW1. - Photo contribution by MarkHolloway---M1917 - Manville, New Jersey 2-8-2002. Photo taken by Dr. Georg von Rauch, photo sent by Dr. Andre Maurois.---US 6ton Light Tank - Photo provided by Dr. Andre Maurois.---27th Tank Company at Camp Smith, Peekskill New York in the early 1930s.
M1917 - M1917A1

The American licensed copy of the Renult FT17. The M1917A1 was a modification carried out on 6 basic M1917 units in 1931. This modification increased the horsepower to 75 by using a Franklin series 145 air cooled engine. This modification increased the speed of the tank to a blistering 9+ mph - probably much too fast for the 2 crewmen inside!


Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
1921 Christie Amphibious Tank

No details are known.


Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
1922 Christie Amphibious Tank

No details are known.


Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
1923 Christie Amphibious Tank

No details are known.


T-1---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
Tank Developement Chassis T-1 1928

The developement of better track for tanks had become a high priority with Ordnance technicians and in 1928 this little vehicle was designed to test various types of track. This test (picture taken in 1929) shows a track which consisted of two belts of bandsaw steel joined by grousers which were also the track guides for the driving front wheel. The rear wheel was an idler and the outer edges of the alternating grousers had an overhang to keep the track on the idler. Only one of these was built by the James Cunningham Company. Cunningham was known (at that time) to produce some of America's finest luxury and professional automobiles.

Specifications
Crew ?
Weight 3000 lbs
Dimensions ?
Powerplant Ford Model A engine - 42hp
Performance low - 3mph
second - 9.3mph
high - 19.5mph

Kegresse-Hinstin---Kegresse-Hinstin
The Kegresse-Hinstin

The French, like the Americans, were searching for a better and quieter track system for light tanks and both were enthused by a track and suspension system developed by Kegresse-Hinstin in the mid 1920's. The track itself was reinforced rubber and was driven by two piece drive wheels which worked on a cam action to squeeze the track more tightly when slippage occurred - assuring traction. As the adapter could not be applied to a M1917, one of the Renault FTs at Aberdeen was modified to accept the kit. It has front and rear rollers to improve trench crossing capabilities. The Kegresse-Hinstin kit did have some advantages as the French continued development until it was efficient by the late 1920s. It was then placed on numerous Citroen half tracks used in the Sahara Desert. The U.S. Ordnance Department gave up on it rather early due to problems shown in the picture on the right. Here the Renault FT tried to negotiate a turn in rough terrain and struck a tree stump resulting in part of the roadwheel assembly on the right side being ruined.


Cunningham T1---T1 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.---Cunningham T1E1---T1E1 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.

T1E1 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.---Cunningham T1E2---T1E2 with a gun camera as used in aircraft. - Photo research by IonFonosch.---Cunningham T1E3

----Cunningham T1E4---T1E4 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.---T1E4 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.

T1E5 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.---Cunningham T1E6---T1E6 - Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch.
The Cunningham
T1 - T1E1 - T1E2 - T1E3 - T1E4 - T1E5 - T1E6

A series of test vehicles that were never placed in production. All photos above read from left to right and show the series development.


Christie T4
The Christie T4 Combat Car

In order to distinguish the difference between Infantry and Cavalry needs, the term "Combat Car" was given to projects involving the Cavalry.


Christie T2---Christie T2E1

Christie T1 combat car---Christie T1 combat car---Christie T1 combat car
The Christie (T2) T5 Combat Car

In order to distinguish the difference between Infantry and Cavalry needs, the T2 convertable car project was renamed the T5 Combat Car project. Note the .50cal and .30cal Browning Machine Guns. The left 2 pictures show the T2 and the T2E1, the final 3 show the unit as it was renamed to T5.


T2
United States Light Tank T2

One unit was built based on the experiance gained from the Cunningham T1 - T6 series. Note the Vickers type suspension. This unit was built at the Rock Island Arsenal.

Specifications
Crew ?
Weight 12705 lbs
Dimensions length 13' 4.5"
width 7' 9"
height 6' 9"
Armor ?
Armament 1 x .50cal & 1 x .30cal Browning
Powerplant Continental 7cyl radial 668ci 264hp
Performance 27mph

Christie M1932---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
The Christie M1932

Shades of the future!

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 5 tons
Dimensions length 22'
width 7'
height 5' 7"
Armor Double hulled .375 - .5"
Armament Hispano Suiza 700hp V12
Performance 60mph (tracks) 120mph (wheels)

The Christie M1935A
The Christie M1935A

Shades of the future!

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 4 tons
Dimensions length 15'
width 6' 6"
height 5' 6"
Armor .5"
Powerplant 300hp supercharged to 450hp
Performance 60mph (tracks) 90mph (wheels)

The Christie M1935B
The Christie M1935B

Shades of the future!

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 5.5 tons
Dimensions length 21'
width 7'
height 5' 6"
Armor .5"
Powerplant Hispano Suiza 750hp V12
Armament 75mm Main Gun
Performance 65mph (tracks) 95mph (wheels)

The Christie M1936
The Christie M1936

A variation of the M1935. This vehicle ran on tracks only. The M1936 was eventually sold to the British in 1937 as a tractor and various parts described as grapefruit to get around restrictions in the sale of war materials.

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 6 tons
Dimensions length 17' 6"
width 6'
height 5'
Armor ?
Powerplant Christie Curtiss D12 - 300hp
Armament 75mm Main Gun
Performance 60mph and could jump a 15' trench!

M1937---Christie M1937---M1938
The Christie M1937 and M1938

Further examples of adaptations of the original M1935


Disston Tractor Tank 1937
The Disston Tractor Tank 1937

First shown to the army in 1937. The Disston used a standard Caterpillar model 35 chassis with an armored structure attached. Rejected by the army, it was sold commercially as the Disston Six Ton Tractor Tank (see Afghanistan) to "nations with greatly reduced appropriations" according to their sales brochures. This top heavy tank, no doubt, inspired the awsome New Zealand "Bob Semple".

Specifications
Crew 3 (7 if operating as a personnel carrier)
Weight 15,000 lbs
Dimensions length 11' 3"
width 6' 3"
height 7' 8"
Armor ?
Powerplant 4 cyl 47.5hp
Armament 37mm Main Gun (located in the rear)

T2E1---T2E1
T2E1

The photo on the left shows the T2E1, the photo on the right shows a T2E1 with a turret found on 9 of the production M2 tank units. The T2 would become the standardized M2A1 tank, the first tank produced in any numbers in the United States since the WW1 period. The photos of these tanks occur in 1934 and 1935. The standardized production of the M2A1 began in 1938.


T2E2
T2E2

The T2E2 was the designation given to the twin turret design for the infantry (the only army units technically allowed to own tanks). This unit was later standardized as the M2A2.


T3
T3

The T3 had, perhaps, the lowest profile of any true tracked combat (as opposed to a support type) vehicle ever tested - 4' 6". Powered by a Ford 221" V8, it could attain a respectable 35mph.

Specifications
Crew 2
Weight 7 tons
Dimensions length 11' 3"
width 6' 9"
height 4' 6"
Armor 1/4 to 3/8"
Powerplant Ford 221ci V8
Armament .30 cal MG
Performance 35mph

T5---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch---T5E1 - An experimental armored vehicle with large barbette hull
T5

More testing on the twin turret concept for the cavalry produced the T5 "Combat Car". The concept was to provide an armored tracked vehicle for scouting missions. The cavalry was not allowed to own tanks and so in order to fool the United States congress, they were called Combat Cars.

Specifications
Crew ?
Weight 12580 lbs
Dimensions length 13' 4"
width 7' 6"
height 6' 7"
Armor ?
Armament 3 x .30cal Browning
Powerplant Continental radial 670ci
Performance 36mph

M1A1
M1A1

Derived from the M1E2 project and had basically all the same qualities. The M1A1 was designated as a "Combat Car" and designed for the cavalry.


T5E2---M1E2 - a test done in 1937 done to attempt a lengthing of the rear bogie by 11" to produce lower ground pressure.---M1 Combat Car
T5E2 - M1 - M1A2

The period between the two World Wars, only infantry units were allowed to have "tanks" (American political and military intelligence) before 1939. Brave and ingenious designers did engineer tanks for the cavalry, but called them "Combat Cars" and this was enough to fool the United States Congress (were they dumb or what?). 17 of these units were built. The only tanks allowed to be tested by US Doctrine were light and medium tanks for the infantry. T5E2 was the designation given to the single turret design of the T5 series for the cavalry. The T5E2 was then produced as the M1. To further confuse everyone, the vehicle was redesignated the M1A2 "tank" in 1940.


M1E3
M1E3

The M1E3, was a test done in 1939 at Rock Island attempting to improve the track of the vehicle. Though not accepted for use on this tank, the track was used successfully on M series half tracked vehicles during WW2. The track was called a "rubber band" or endless track. It was made of cable and rubber pads.


M2---M2 M3 M5 chart
M2

One of the last of the "Combat Cars" designed for the cavalry. This tank belonged to General Patton. 50 of these vehicles were produced.


M2A1---M2A1
M2A1

T2E1, when produced, became the M2A1.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 18,800 lbs
Armor 1/4 to 5/8"
Powerplant Continental 7cyl radial 260hp
Armament .30 cal MG
Performance 45mph

M2A2---M2A2---"interesting enough to point out that the serial number is only 2 digits from the M2A2 that you have in this picture on your webpage... 30154 yours 30152 this picture (this) picture (is) believed to have been taken at Ft Derussy, Oahu, Hawaii sometime late 30's, (the) unit is (the) 11th Infantry Division. (Taro leaf patch)  BEFORE it became the patch for the 24th Infantry Div. Even though the 11th was based at Schofield Barracks, the background of the picture is consistent with other pictures I have showing the east boundary of the post." - Photo contribution by John Szalay

M2A2---M2A2---M2A2
M2A2

Twin turrets and operated just like the Vickers twin turret tanks of the same period. Note the 3 sequenced action shots on the bottom row.


The center picture is an interesting lineup showing from left to right a M2A4, M2A3, and an M1 Combat Car---M2A3

M2A3E1---M2A2E2---M2A2E3
M2A3, M2A3E1, M2A3E2, M2A3E3

An improved A2. The big change was the commanders cupola. The left picture is an interesting lineup showing from left to right a M2A4, M2A3, and an M1 Combat Car. Of all three, only the M2A4 would see combat. The E1 was an experiment using a diesel motor. The United States Army deployment of diesel powered field units was limited owing to yhe wartime requirements of the United States Navy for the limited quanities of available diesel fuel. Diesel powered vehicles were built for other nations however. The E2 was an experiment using a new suspension, and increased armor up to 1 inch. The test was not successful. The E3 was an experiment using a new GMC suspension, and increased armor. The test was somewhat successful and led to developement of a new type of automatic transmission design.


Christie M1940---Christie M1941

Christie M1942---ChristieM1942A
More Christie Fantasys

Shown from left to right are the M1940, M1941, M1942, and the M1942A. Most Christie pictures are heavily airbrushed and should be viewed with suspicion. Some were never even made as in the M1940. The M1940 never even came off the drawing board. final submissions by J. Walter Christie. The M1942A picture is by Col. Robert Icks, a famous developer of United States armor. Since the picture comes from him, it appears that this tank was actually built. Note that it does not have the multiple machine guns as in the M1942 touched up picture. To further confuse everyone, the Christie "M" series date is not always acurate. Christie determined that his designs were so futuristic that he would "guess" at a future date when he thought that the rest of the industry would catch up with him.


M2A4---M2A4---USMC troops on Guadalcanal in 1942.---M2A4 Light Tank
M2A4

This vehicle had a 37mm main gun mounted in a hand traversed turret. Some units were even fitted with the Guiberson T1020 diesel enginel. About 375 of these tanks were built. All but ten were built by American Car and Foundry, the final 10 were built by Baldwin Locomotive. They were used for training by the U.S. military. Some did see combat with the British and Americans. The picture on the right is a late model. This was the final tank designed in the "M2" series.


Marmon Herrington CTL1---Marmon Herrington CTL2---Marmon Herrington CTL3---

Marmon Herrington CTL3A---Marmon Herrington CTL3M---Marmon Herrington CTVL
Marmon Herrington
CTL1, CTL2, CTL3, CTL3A, CTL3M, CTVL, CTL4, CTL6,
CTM-3TBD, CTLS-4TAC/4TAY, CTMS-1TBI, MTLS-1GI4

These tanks were independently designed by the Marmon Herrington company for domestic sales and export - mostly export. Though tested by the military, most were never purchased. The left picture shows a CKL1 designed for Iran. The CTL2 was another exported design. The CTL3 was an up armored design for the United States Marine Corps and was advertised for sale for $21,500 in 1937. The CTL3A was a test with a new type of suspension. The CTL3M was yet another suspension test for the United States Marine Corps. The CTVL was a design for Mexico. The CTL4 (not shown) was also used by the USMC and was actually a CTL3 with a Ford 6cyl engine. The CTL6 (not shown) also served with the USMC and was similar to the CTL3M except for the rear idler and drive. In 1942 the USMC purchased the CTM-3TBD (not shown) which had a true turret. In 1941 the United States became the unintended owners of 240 CTLS-4TAC/4TAY (not shown) units. These had been intended for the Dutch East Indies and China, however, the Japanese made delivery difficult - if not impossible. The US dubbed these tanks as T14 and T16 and sent them to remote and relatively quiet war zones - like Alaska. The 4TAC was a left hand drive and the 4TAY was a right hand drive. The CTMS-1TBI (not shown) was another tank intended for the Dutch East Indies. It was tested by the U.S. in 1943 and found to be "thoroughly unreliable, mechanically and structurally unsound, underpowered and equipped with unsatisfactory armament" - OUCH! The MTLS-1GI4 was the heaviest design by Marmon Herrington until the T9E1 (M22 Locust). It even had twin 37mm cannons in the turret! Known as the "Dutch Four Man Tank" it received the same enthusiastic reception as the CTMS-1TBI.


M3---M3---M3 in Africa---M3 at the Patton Museum in 1991. - Bill Kirk's private collection.

M3 layout---M3 suspension---M3 maintenance---M3 tracklayout---M3 gun and tool layout---M3 - Two recruits in a light tank during training in mechanized warfare at Montford Point Camp, NC. - Photo contribution by Mark Holloway.

M3E1---M3E2---M3E3

M3E4 - A specially rigged tank to test the floatation equipment designed by Alvis-Straussler.---M3E4 - Seen here afloat. The tank weighed 12 tons. Water speed was 4mph. The test was finally declaired "not practical" owing to the device adding an extra 2500lbs to the light tank and could only be used on smooth water without a current. Studebaker made the flotation device for Strausser in the US.
M3, M3E1, M3E2, M3E3, M3E4, Stuart 1, Stuart 2

Standardized July 1940, this was the replacement for the outdated M2 series. This tank series would achieve lasting fame known as the "Stuart". The British who bought many prior to and after the United States entering the war gave this name to the tank. Further sub designators by the British were Stuart Mk 1 and Stuart Mk 2. The Mk 1 was gasoline powered and the Mk 2 was diesel powered. Soldiers of the United States had no special affectionate name for this vehicle (though they probably had a few un-affectionate names). This tank was built a bit on the heavy side of light tanks of the period as it came complete with a 37mm main gun and five .30cal machine guns (what other "light" tank can claim that). It was also noted for having stronger and heavier armor than it's foreign sisters (10 - 44mm). Fast and reliable, the only downside of this vehicle was that the crew compartment was designed a bit on the clumsy side. Test variations were numbered M3E1, M3E2, M3E3 and mostly centered around diesel versus gasoline engines. No diesel tanks were adopted for US Army use. The M3E2 was a twin Cadillac V8 engine combination driven through twin automatic transmissions. The Ordance Department expressed doubt in the design and so GM had the tank driven from Detroit all the way to Aberdeen under it's own power, achieving 50mph, and with no problems. The M3E2 went on to become the M5. The M3E1 involved a Cummins Diesel and was rated as "satisfactory" but was "not adopted due to diesel policy". That was a reference to a priority the Navy had on all diesel fuel. M3E3 seems to have involved tests with a cast homogenous turret, a sloping front plate, storage box, and an attempt to reduce bullet "splash". All M3 tanks were built by American Car & Foundry.

The US M3 Stuart series was the first American tank to see active service in WWII, and did so in North Africa. Classified a light tank by western forces, and often outgunned on western battlefields, the tank actually enjoyed a superiority on eastern battlefields. The USMC often commented on how much they enjoyed using the 37mm gun, with canister shot, to mow down vegetation and the Japanese soldiers hidden within. The 37mm gun was more than enough to deal with Japanese armor as well. The British soon unofficially called the little tank "Honey" because of it's reliability and comfort (if a tank could ever be called comfortable).

The M3 Light Tank first entered production in March 1941 and was a direct development of the M2A4 light tank. A unique feature was the suspension. The crew of four consisted of a loader, a gunner, a driver and the co-driver who operated the hull machine gun. The rear idler wheel, unlike most tracked AFVs, was mounted on a trailing arm designed to increase the length of track in contact with the ground. The turret had no basket, which caused the gunner and loader to "walk" with the turret as it turned. Because of a less than convenient drive shaft that bisected the compartment, it became a preferment to actually aim the tank rather than rotate the turret.

The M3 first saw active service with the British in North Africa. The type largely supplied were the Mark 2 (diesel). Despite concern about the vehicle's size and the internal layout the British were very enthusiastic with the performance of this tank, especially with regard to its reliability which was a particular weakness of the early war British tanks.

The British desert 'Honey' tanks were fitted with a considerable number of modifications including sand-skirts, external stowage boxes, and extra external fuel tanks. To increase internal stowage, the British removed the sponson machine guns. The "skin" of the tank was much tougher than expected with armor thickness approaching that of a medium tank early in the war.

Production of the M3 ran from March 1941 until January 1943 with 5811 vehicles being produced, 1784 of which were supplied to Britain. Of the 5811 vehicles produced, 1285 were fitted with the Guiberson Diesel.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 27,000 lbs
Length 14' 7"
Width 8' 4"
Height 8' 2 3/8"
Armor 3/8" - 1.5"
Armament 1 x 37mm, 4 x .30cal
Powerplant See engine chart
Performance 35 mph
Engines
Continental A 7 cylinder radial air cooled gasoline engine Model W670-9A, 250hp.
Guiberson A 9 cylinder radial air cooled diesel engine model T1020 Series 4, 250hp.
(M3E1) Cummins Model HBS 600 Diesel, 6 cylinder. The vehicle weighted 27,300 lbs.
(M3E2) Cadillac Twin V8 Cadillac engines supplied power @ 150hp each through twin automatic transmissions. The M3E2 weighed 28,165 lbs.

Stuart M3A1---M3A1---M3A1 somewhere in the Pacific -  NO! the tank is not stuck! This is an action photo.---An M3A1 of the 192nd Tank Battalion - Provisional Tank Group in Pozzorubio, Philippines just before the Japanese invasion. The cavalry unit passing is the Philippine Scout 26th.
M3A1, Stuart Hybrid, Stuart Flattop

The new style turret being developed for the M3A1, and hull for the M3A3, had features that were desired and as a result a hybrid turret was introduced into the already running M3 production line sans the turret basket. These late productions of the M3 Stuart became known as "Hybrids" or "Flattops" and were the most awful version of this tank produced. When assembled, not all components seem to have been available and many of the early hybrids did not have either gunner's or loader's periscopes. The apertures for which were plated over. Combined with removal of the cupola, this meant that the turret crew now had no vision devices except the telescopic sight and the pistol ports that had been moved higher up the turret wall to suit the seated crew of the M3A1. Still without a hydraulic traverse, a hand wheel was installed on the loaders side just like the standard M3. Some early and late hybrids were supplied to New Zealand (see the NZ Section of TANKS!). The late hybrids seem to have been influenced by the M3A3 that had a welded hull.

Production of the M3A1 was from May 1942 to January 1943 with 4621 vehicles being produced, 1594 were supplied to Britain

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 27,000 lbs
Length 14' 7"
Width 8' 4"
Height 8' 2 3/8"
Armor 3/8" - 1.5"
Armament 1 x 37mm, 4 x .30cal
Powerplant See engine chart
Performance 35 mph

(no picture)
M3A2

Cancelled prior to production in favor of the M3A3.


USMC M3A3 - a heavy flame attachment being used in the Pacific.---M3A3 official photo released to the press.
M3A3, Stuart V

The M3A3 was produced almost exclusively for Lend-Lease and saw service with the British and Commonwealth Armies in Italy and NW Europe as well as with the Chinese. The M3A3 had a redesigned hull, all welded, one piece hull front. Production was halted in 1943 in favor of the new M5 Light Tank. The M3A3 was also known as the Stuart V.

M3A1 hull was redesigned with a sloping glacis with roof hatches for the driver and co-driver as well as increased internal space for the previously cramped driver and co-driver. Escape hatches, fire protection, and ventilation were improved. When in travel, the driver and co-driver could raise their seats so that they could look out of the hatches. Newly designed extendable steering levers were used in this raised position along with a removable windshield and canvas cover that was attached to mounting brackets on the glacis plate. A bustle was added to the turret rear for radio gear. Pistol ports were done away with.

By the time the M3A3 was produced between September 1942 and September 1943 with 3427 vehicles being produced of which 2045 were supplied to Britain and most of the remainer being sent to other Allies. Of those few vehicles retained by the US, none saw combat and were only used for training. By this date, the design was "tired" for western use, being under-armed and under-protected by the standards of warfare there.

Production was halted in 1943 in favor of the new M5 Light Tank.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 27,000 lbs
Length 14' 7"
Width 8' 4"
Height 8' 2 3/8"
Armor 3/8" - 1.5"
Armament 1 x 37mm, 4 x .30cal
Powerplant See engine chart
Performance 35 mph

M5 - The name of the tank in the picture is "Hitler's Headache". ---M5 in Northern France, 1944---M5 with Cullen device
M3E2, M5

Logically, the M3's replacement should have been the M4, however there was already an M4 in production - the M4 "Sherman". A decision was made to name this new model the M5 in an attempt to hold down on confusion. The reasons for making the M5 were many, but the main two were for improvement in design and to address an engine shortage caused by war needs for aircraft engines. The M5 was powered by twin Cadillac V8 engines.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 33,000 lbs
Length 14' 2 3/4"
Width 7' 4 1/4"
Height 7' 6 1/2"
Armor 1/2" - 2.5"
Armament 1 x 37mm, 3 x .30cal
Powerplant Twin Cadillac V8
Performance 40 mph
Range 100 miles

M5A1---M5A1 with flotation device---M5A1 official photo released to the press---

M5A1 photo taken at the General George S. Patton Memorial Museum at Chiriaco Summit, Ca. - Photo submitted by Mark Holloway.---M5A1 photo taken at the General George S. Patton Memorial Museum at Chiriaco Summit, Ca. - Photo submitted by Mark Holloway.---M5A1 photo taken at the General George S. Patton Memorial Museum at Chiriaco Summit, Ca. - Photo submitted by Mark Holloway.
M5A1

The final design of the M3/5 series. Sand shields were often fitted to this design. Out of date by 1943, the tank's production was halted in favor of newer designs. Some 7000 of these sturdy tanks were built and served until the end of the war. The picture on the right shows a unit with flotation devices. Both M5 and M5A1 had a 6 forward and 1 reverse speed transmission.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 33,907 lbs
Length 15' 10 1/2"
Width 7' 6"
Height 7' 10 1/2"
Armor 1/2" - 2.5"
Armament 1 x 37mm, 3 x .30cal
Powerplant Twin Cadillac V8
Performance 40 mph
Range 100 miles

(no picture)
T7

The proposed successor to the M2/M3/M5 line of light tanks. Changes in needs caused weight increases. The T7 was finally redesignated as a medium tank (see the section on Medium Tanks).


T9E1---T9E1---Marmon Herrington lineup

M22 with a prototype cargo plane---M22 staged photo for the press.
T9E1 - M22

Early in 1941 GMC, J. Walter Christie, and Marmon Herrington were asked to submit designs for an air transportable tank. The T9E1 by Marmon Herrington won the contract and was standardized as the M22 "Locust". Locust was the name given to this tank by the British - not the Americans. Americans refered to this vehicle as the M22. Despite rumors, M22 tanks WERE NOT airdropped into Normandy. In fact, the U.S. did not finish designs for the proposed transport plane until after WW2. The plane in the photo showing the M22 being loaded was a Fairchild XC82 and was taken in 1945. Other tests were done using a Douglas C54 in late 1944 and 45 by hanging the tank under the plane. These were much publicized. The photo at the right showing airborne troops attacking with the M22 is staged. All production M22 carried the same specifications. The center photo shows the M22 next to the rejected MTLS-1GI4.

Specifications
Crew 3
Weight 16,452 lbs
Length 12' 11"
Width 7' 4.5"
Height 6' .5"
Armor up to 1"
Powerplant Lycoming 6cyl, 168hp
Armament 37mm and 1 x .30 cal MG
Performance 40mph

T24---T24E1---M24---M24
T24, T24E1, M24

The T24 (left picture) was designed to meet needs that none of the previous light tanks addressed. Improved mobility, protection, 75mm gun, and a heavy .50cal MG made this tank a battle winner. Entering production in April 1944, it was to see little action in WW2. The T24E1 (picture second from left) was a pre production test to upgrade the engine to a Continental radial aircraft engine. The M24 (right 2 pictures) was the final output. Entering the war too late in Europe and nearly too late in the Pacific, this vehicle would have to wait to the Korean War to prove it's mettle. When North Koreans invaded, these were really the only tanks on hand for defense. Facing the Soviet 34/85 Medium Tank - crude by any standards of western manufacture - the little 32,000 pound light tank was outclassed in armor protection. Eventually the tank was dug in and used for artillery once replaced by the M4 and M26 Medium and Heavy tanks.


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Last Update: Thursday, February 13, 2003

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George Rodgers Clark

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