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M3 AA Prototype

A specific military testing nomenclature has not been found for this vehicle. The photo was taken in 1942 and the background has been edited for security. The gun is a .50cal Maxson Quad and was used extensively on U.S. Half-track vehicles. This vehicle was not adopted for production. Other than the armament, the vehicle was identical to the standard M3 light tank.



M5A1 AA Prototype

A specific military testing nomenclature has not been found for this vehicle. The photo was taken in 1943 at Aberdeen Proving Ground.   The gun is a U.S. Navy Mark 17 consisting of two Browning .50cal AN-M2 Machine Guns. This vehicle was not adopted for production. Other than the armament, the vehicle was identical to the standard M5A1 light tank.



T77

In 1945 this M24 was tested using six .50cal Machine Guns in a combination known as "Multiple Caliber .50 Gun Motor Carriage T77". When tested with a computing sight it was known as the T77E1. Built by the United Shoe Machinery Corporation, it was intended to be an anti-aircraft weapon. The open top on the turret was home to a two man gun crew. The T77 weighed about 38,000 ready for combat. Other than the armament, the vehicle was identical to the standard M24 light tank.



T85

In March 1945 this mixed bag of parts from an M3 and a T7 was tested with a 20mm Oerlikon Mark IV installed. Some special modifications were made to the vehicle to allow a 103" width at the drive sprockets. The same chassis was used for the 40mm T65, the 4.5" T16, and the T64 155mm vehicles. A variation was the T85E1 which had a rectangular shaped turret. Not adopted for production.

Specifications
Crew: 6
Weight: 34,000lbs
Range: 70 miles
Ground Clearance: 15"
Engine: Twin Cadillac V8
Armor 3/8 - 5/8"
Armament: 20mm Oerlikon Mark IV
Transmission Two hydrodynamic, 4 forward, 1 reverse

Jeep with 37mm---M6 GMC with 37mm---Dodge half ton with 37mm
T36

These photos show repeated tests attempting to place a high velocity 37mm anti tank gun onto a light vehicle. The Jeep's thin metal was found unacceptable and so the heavier Dodge .5 and GMC .75  ton 4x4 vehicle were tested with some success.



T36

40mm guns were among the most widely used by the United States between 1940 and 1946. The reason for their popularity was due to weapon weight and the delivery power of their shot. Shown above is a Bofors gun on a modified M3 tank chassis. This unaccepted for production model is dated at 1942 and the picture was taken at Aberdeen Proving Ground. The fire control system included a T10 computer which was a gear operated device which provided data for gun tracking.



T52

This was another attempt to fit a Bofors gun into a multiple gun carriage. Note the Browning .50cal MGs attached to the turret of the M4A2 Medium Tank chassis. The arrangement, shown here at APG, was not successful due to the vehicle's high weight of 65,420 pounds.


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T65, T65E1

This single Bofors 40mm gun was fitted to the same chassis as the T-85 20mm arrangement. See above for details on the chassis. The single gun could fire up to 120 rounds per minute from it's 360 degree rotating exposed turret. The rate of fire was rarely achieved as ammunition was loaded manually via 4 round clips. The photo in the center was taken in 1943 of a twin gun test version. The right photo was taken in 1944 with the twin gun arrangement, now called T12E1(M4) mounted on a M24 Chaffee chassis. The combination was called a T65E1.



T49

During the early 1940's, the Army's Tank Destroyer Force tested a 57mm main gun in a completely new type of vehicle. The 57mm was initially designed to be a towed anti-tank gun but because of it's excellent properties, it was adapted for this test. With a muzzle velocity of 2720 feet per second, the gun could range at some 2.5 miles. The vehicle it was adapted into had a weight of 16 tons and was powered by twin Buick 320ci engines. Top speed for this SPG was reported at over 50mph!


Mark 8 Gun - Photo provided by Dr. Andre Maurois.---
The Mark VIII

Built on a Holt chassis, this vehicle was tested in 1918 using the popular French 75mm gun. The rounds weighed between 12 and 16pounds with a delivery of 1693 - 1742fps and a range of up to 5.5miles. The vehicle was clumsy and top heavy as can be seen. The suspension was rigid.

Specifications
Weight: 4.5 tons
Length 10' including rear rails
Width 4' 10"
Height 7' 3"
Engine: Cadillac V8, 70hp
Armament: 75mm


Name Unknown

This was America's second attempt to incorporate the M1916 75mm gun into a self propelled chassis once again using Holt components. This vehicle was built in 1918. The suspension was rigid. If you know the exact model name for this vehicle, please email me.

Specifications
Weight: 5.85 tons
Length 11' 1.5"
Width 5' 3"
Height 6' 10.5"
Engine Holt 293ci 4cyl, 47hp
Transmission 3 speed
Performance 7.5mph
Armament 75mm
Armor .5" around the engine

---------Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
The Mark VII

Designed and built at the Rock Island Arsenal in 1919. The M1916 75mm gun was mated to a specifically built Holt 2.5 ton chassis, though many of the components were available commercially on their standard 2.5 ton tractor. The pictures in the center and the right are of how the vehicle appeared in the early 1930s. Only 2 vehicles were built.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight: 5 tons
Length 11' 3"
Width 5' 3"
Height 5' 11"
Engine Cadillac V8, 70hp
Transmission 3 speed
Performance 10mph (almost)
Armament 75mm
Range 36miles
Ford 34"

---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
The Mark VI

A heavier vehicle was designed to mount the new M1920 75mm gun. This gun fired a 15 pound projectile at 2175fps at a range of up to 8 miles. 2 of these vehicles were built at Holt's Stockton plant.

Specifications
Weight: 13,200 pounds
Length 12' 1"
Width 6' 5"
Height 7' 5.5"
Engine Holt V8, 565ci (specially designed), 75hp
Performance 14mph
Armament 75mm, M1920
Armor Equipped with removable shields

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The Christie Caterpillar Mount 1920

Two units were designed for the Army at a cost of $95,000 for the pair.

Specifications
Weight 8 tons
Length 12'
Width 7' 6"
Height ?
Engine Christie 6cyl, 90hp
Performance 20mph (wheels)
Armament 75mm, M1920
Armor ?
Transmission 4 speed

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The 75mm Gun and 105 Howitzer Motor Carriage #2 Model 1921

Two Christie units were tested by the army. No provisions were made for crew or ammunition transport. Considered noisy, unreliable, crude in design, too heavy, and imperfect manufacturing techniques used, the design was judged a total failure and rejected.



The Holt 35 Experiment

A pure experiment designed to test the versatility of a mount for the M1A1 75mm 1923 Pack Howitzer using off the shelf products. The gun was light and capable of being transported broken down by mule. The heaviest portion was the barrel at 221 pounds. The tractor was a Holt 35 dated around 1925.



The Cunningham 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T1

Mounting the same gun as the experimental carriage above, The James Cunningham & Sons Company constructed this test vehicle in 1930. The gun was now redesigned to simply M1.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 5.6 tons
Length 10' 9"
Width 6' 1"
Height 6' 3"
Engine LaSalle V8, 87hp
Performance 21mph
Armament 75mm Howitzer, M1
Armor .25" (max)
Transmission 3 speed


The 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T3

Mounting the same gun as the Cunningham carriage above, and shown here at APG in 1940. The gun was now redesignated to M1A1 (again). This vehicle was based on the M1 Combat Car (see US Light Tank Section) and had identical mechanical specifications.



The 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T18

Mounting the same gun as the T3 carriage above, and shown here at APG in 1941. Assembled by the Firestone Company, changing requirements caused the project to be cancelled just prior to the unit's final delivery for testing. The vehicle was kept on display at Aberdeen until 1947 and then destroyed.


T30---M3 75mm 1940
The 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage T30 (M3)

(no information)



The T67

This (nearly) same vehicle is shown above mounting the 57mm gun. Now packing the 75mm, it came to be called the T67 and is shown here at APG in 1942. Only one unit was built for this test.


Either a T47 or T17E1---M8---M8A1

M8 in France during 1944.
The T47, T17E1, M8, M8A1

After starting development in 1939, the T47 (also known as T17E1) was accepted for production as the M8. The 75mm howitzer was mounted on a M5 Stuart chassis, and coming off the production lines by September 1942. 1778 vehicles were built by Cadillac by the time production ceased in January 1944. The gun could be elevated to 40 degrees and depressed -20 degrees. The howitzer was either a model M2 or M3 and fired a 75mm round. The picture on the right is of the M8A1 also known as the "M8 Howitzer Motor Carriage Modified". The gun used in the M8A1 was a M3 75mm.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 33,000 pounds
Length 14' 6.75"
Width 7' 4.25"
Height 7' 6.5"
Armament 75mm Howitzer, .50cal MG


The M19

The M19 40mm mount was versatile enough to accept this quad arrangement of 75mm recoilless cannon in 1946. Shown here at APG.


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The T72

The T72 is shown here in 1943 mounting the 76mm gun. This was an attempt to produce a lighter vehicle than the M10 (below). When testing ended, the test vehicle was actually 4000 pounds lighter with better crew space afforded. Testing was dropped in favor of the T70 project (below).


T70---M18
The T70, M18 "Hellcat"

The T70 is shown here in 1943 mounting the 76mm gun. The production model of the T70 became known as the M18 Hellcat. The Hellcat was built by Buick. The image on the right shows an attempt to add floatation devices to the tank. The floatation devices were known at the Ritchie T7 or the M18 BB Device. The device was as clumsy as they looked.

Specifications
Crew 5
Weight 18.5 tons
Length 17' 4.76"
Width 9' 2"
Height 7' 10.5"
Armament 76mm, 1 x .50cal MG
Engine Continental Radial 973ci 350hp
Performance 55mph
Armor 5/16 to 1" Welded

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The Holt 55-I

This was the United States Army's first attempt to develop a self propelled gun. Shown at APG in 1917. The gun had a muzzle velocity of 2600fps and a range of 5.5miles using the mark 1 anti-aircraft shell.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 22,570 pounds
Length 20' 8"
Width 10'
Height 9' 6"
Engine 4cyl Holt 75hp
Transmission Clark 5speed
Armament 3" M1917 gun
Performance 5mph

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The T1, M5

This 3" self propelled gun was built by the Cleveland Tractor Company (Cletrac) in 1941. After improvements and tests, the vehicle was accepted as the M5 in 1942. The M5 remained in use with the American military into the 1950s. The gun's range was nearly 9 miles and could deliver 20 rounds per minute in short bursts. 33 rounds were carried onboard.

Specifications
Crew 4
Weight 22,570 pounds
Length 15'
Width 8' 3"
Height 5'
Engine 6cyl Hercules 150hp 404ci
Transmission Clark 5speed
Armament 3" M6 gun

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The T24

This 3" self propelled gun was built by the Baldwin Locomotive in 1941 and was intended as an anti-tank weapon. Tests showed that it was too tall and was sent back to Baldwin for adjustments.


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The T40, M9

This 3" self propelled gun was the rebuilt T24 by the Baldwin Locomotive in 1941. The Japanese attack caused this model to be accepted for production, however, the project was terminated in April of 1942. The Tank Destroyer Board felt that the vehicle was too slow and the M1918 gun was not available in quantity.


T35---T35E1
The T35, T35E1

This 3" self propelled gun was based on the Sherman M4A2 hull. Using the M7 3" gun, it had a full 360 degree turning radius. The T35 was rejected by the Tank Destroyer Board because it was felt that more side armor, at a better degree of angle was needed. The T35E1 was developed at the same time as the T35 and is shown to the right above and shows all the improvements that the board requested.


M10---M10---M10A1---M10A1
The M10, M10A1

The T35E1, in production, became the famous M10 tank destroyer. The first M10 came off the General Motors Fisher production line in the summer of 1942. By the end of production in December 1943, 4993 of M10 units had been built. The primary difference between the M10 and the M10A1 was that the M10 was diesel powered. The M10A1 was built by Ford and powered by the Ford GAA gasoline engine. Ford produced 1038 M10A1 units and GM produced 375 bringing the total M10 and M10A1 production to over 6400. The M10 served in all theaters of war. The left two pictures are of the M10, the right two pictures are of the M10A1.

Specifications
Weight 65,000 pounds
Length 21' 10"
Width 10'
Height 8' 1.5"
Engine Twin GM diesel or single Ford GAA
Armament 3" M7 gun


The T56

This unit only existed in prototype form. American Car and Foundry developed this 3" gun mount in 1942.



The T57

This unit only existed in prototype form and was an outgrowth of the T56 program. The goal was more power, less weight. This picture was taken in 1942. The vehicle was built by American Car and Foundry.



The T27 81mm Mortar Carrier

This vehicle was tested to see if it was viable to attach the 81mm mortar to a light tracked chassis. The point of the test was to verify if the flooring on the M5A1 tank was strong enough to support the mortar and if the sight was accurate.



The T32

This vehicle was a test using the British 25 pounder Mark II gun (88mm). By the time all the bugs in the weapon mounting were ironed out, better equipment had been designed and the project was dropped.


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The T53, T53E1

This vehicle was an attempt to place the powerful American 90mm anti-aircraft gun on a self propelled chassis for use as a tank killer. Shown above are the T53 and to the right, the modified T53E1. 500 vehicles were to have been produced, but the order was cancelled. Questions arrose about poor mobility, instability, engine cooling, crew protection, excessive height and too little weight to handle the recoil of the gun. The entire project was terminated in the Spring of 1944.


T71---A lineup of the M10 and it's converted brother, the M36.

M36B1---M36B1---M36B2 with overhead armor.
The T71, M36, M36B1, M36B2

This was an attempt to install the 90mm gun in a M10. The initial test was a failure in that the gun made the vehicle unstable and the weight made for a poor ride. A large hollow bustle was designed for placement at the rear of the turret to act as counter weight to compensate for the gun. The counter weight made the vehicle a success at this point and was thus named the T71 (when based on the M10A1 chassis powered by Ford it was called a T71, it was the T71E1 when powered by GM). Vehicles returned to the factories and those already in production were upgraded to the T71 standard. In July 1944, the vehicle was standardized as the M36. In the Fall of 1944, GM began producing a variation of the M36 using the M4A3 chassis. This became known as the M36B1. The 90mm main gun could penetrate 6" of armor at 1000 yards, and with 2 rounds, penetrate 5' of concrete.

The M36 became very popular because of it's firepower and protection. This popularity resulted in it being often used in the role of a combat tank rather than just as a tank killer. The drawback was the open top. In the Spring of 1945, this was corrected and an add-on shield was issued.

Production quanities are as follows:
M36 - 1413
M36B1 - 187
M36B2 - 724


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The M18 - 90mm

The Ordinance Corps was doing everything possible to get the 90mm gun into Europe. This was a test to see if the 90mm could be fitted to the Hellcat. Due to the Hellcat's .5" armor, the gun proved too powerful and the test was dropped. This photo was taken in June of 1945.


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The Mark IV 105mm

The same Holt chassis used for a 75mm gun was also fitted to a 105mm. These pictures were taken at APG in 1921. The M1920 105mm howitzer had a muzzle velocity of 1500fps and could fire a 33 pound projectile nearly 7 miles. This vehicle was rejected - The Field Artillery Board decided a SPG had no tactical advantage over a tractor drawn carriage.


(no photo)
The Christie 105mm

Though both public and private publications mention a M1921 version with a 105mm cannon installed, no photos seem to exist. It is very possible that this vehicle never existed at all.


T32---T32---

M7---M7---M7

M7B1---M7B1

M7B2
T32, M7, M7B1, M7B2 "Priest"

One of the longest lived SPGs to come out of the WW2 era was the M7 series. Pilot models were known as the T32 and tests began in January of 1942. Initially based on the M3 medium tank chassis, the M7 carried the M2A1 howitzer with 44 rounds of ammunition.


usspg-T19-105mmHalfTrack.jpg (54235 bytes)---The T19 mounted a 105mm main gun and is shown here in a Knoxville parade on April 6th, 1942.
T19

(no information)



T82

The T82 was a SPG built by the Heil Company to a specific Ordinance Department requirement for a light vehicle for Pacific theatre of operations. This vehicle was equipped with the M3 105mm howitzer which could fire a 30 pound projectile about 5 miles. The T82 was based on the M5A1 Stuart chassis and could carry 58 rounds of 105mm ammunition.


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T76, M37

Based on the M24 light tank chassis, the T76 was tested in November 1944 as a replacement for the M7. After tests, the T76 was standardized as the M37 in January of 1945. Production started too late for this SPG to take part in WW2.

Photos: Top Row - T76, Second Row - M37.



T88

The T88 was a test to place a 105mm cannon on a M18 chassis. Only one was built and the test was not successful. This picture was taken at APG late in 1944.


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Cunningham 4.2" (107mm) Chemical Mortar SPG

The T1E1 Light Tank chassis was redesigned in a test to carry the 4.2" Chemical Mortar in 1931. The mortar was fairly conventional in that besides being capable of being used for chemical warfare, it could also fire high explosive rounds. The weapon weighed about 250 pounds and had a range of 2.5 miles. The photo to the right shows the Cunningham T2 Light Tank chassis used for the same purpose in 1935.



T81 4.2" (107mm) Chemical Mortar SPG

The M5A1 Light Tank chassis was used here in a test to carry the 4.2" Chemical Mortar.



T29 4.2" (107mm) Chemical Mortar SPG

The M5A1 Light Tank chassis was used here in a test to carry the 4.2" Chemical Mortar and was simply an improved version of the T81.



M37 4.2" (107mm) Chemical Mortar SPG

This was strictly an experimental mounting of the 4.2" mortar in place of the normally carried 105mm howitzer.


T16
T16

This is the only example of a 4.5" cannon placed on a self propelled chassis. The experiment was performed at APG in 1942. Components of the M7 and M3 light tanks were used in the chassis.



Mark X M1922E 4.7"

This example of a 4.7" cannon was placed on a Holt chassis. The chassis itself was unarmored and is shown here at APG in 1924. The unit was built at the Rock Island Arsenal and had a 110hp engine that could move the vehicle at 8.6mph through a 3 speed transmission.


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Mark X M1922E 4.7"

This is the Christie 4.7" SPGs seen at APG in 1921. Only one was built.



Mark II 155mm

10 of these units were built during WW1 in 1918 at Rock Island Arsenal. It carried a model 1918 Filloux 155mm gun that could send a 95 pound projectile out of the muzzle at 2410fps.


---Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
Mark IX M1921

One of the earliest views of a self propelled 155mm howitzer. The chassis was built in Stockton California by the Holt Company in 1921 and is shown here at APG in 1922. The chassis was designed to carry either the 155mm or the 8" gun. There was no suspension. The unit weighed in at 48,000 pounds gross and the tracks were 18" wide.


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Unknown Christie version!
Christie 155mm Self Propelled Guns

Shown are 4 versions of Christie 155mm SPGs. From left to right are units submitted in 1920, 1921, 1922, and an unknown (located on the bottom - please email me if you have any information). Three units were supplied by Christie shown on the top row. Christie was paid $150,000 for these. The 2 pictures in the top middle and right show various rebuilds of the units purchased in 1920.


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T6, M12

A long time went by between the Christie 155mm SPG and the next. The T6 was tested in the Summer of 1941 with great success and approved for production. The production model became known as the M12. The Pressed Steel Car Company made 100 of these units in 1942. The type of cannon used were 3 types, M1917, M1917A1, and the M1918M1. The chassis was basically that of an M3 Medium Tank. The M12 could carry 10 rounds of ammunition and had a specially designed ammunition trailer called the T30. Photos: Top Row - T6, Second Row - M12.

Specifications
Weight 58,770 pounds
Length 21' 11.5"
Width 8'
Height 7' 11"
Engine Wright 975 C-1 Radial, 400hp
Performance 25mph
Armament 155mm M1917 or M1917A1 or M1918M1


T64

This 1943 test mounting for the 155mm cannon was placed on a chassis using components from the M3 and M7 Light Tank. The 155mm cannon was an M1 and could range nearly 9 miles. A crew of 6 was called for.



55-I 8" SPG

This is the earliest example of a test to mount an 8" cannon to a carriage. This test used a British 8" cannon on the 55-I chassis mentioned above. The whole application was crude, using wooden planks to support the cannon. This picture was taken around 1917.


Photo provided by Andre Maurois
Self Propelled Caterpillar Mark 1 for the   8" Howitzer

Three of these units were built sometime during WW1.

Specifications
Weight 58,000 pounds
Length 23' 8"
Width 9' 10.5"
Height 9'
Engine Holt 4cyl, 75hp
Performance 4.1mph
Armament British Mk VIII.5

------I understand that this is the only picture available showing the unit without tracks.
Christie Motor Carriage for the  8" Howitzer

Presented in 1918, this was, probably, the strangest track arrangement ever tested by the Army. The test was a miserable failure and Christie went on to use components of the carriage for his 155mm model.



8" Howitzer Motor Carriage Mark IX Model 1920

An early effort to mount the 8" cannon on a motorized carriage. The actual date of the project was 1921 not 1920 as the lable of the unit trys to state. The mounting was the same Holt carriage as used on the 155mm howitzer described above. The engine was a Sterling 6 cylinder of 1051ci that developed 240hp.


T89---M43
T89, M43 8" Howitzer Motor Carriage

Pressed Steel Car built 48 units between June and September 1945. 24 of the units were T83 (M40) conversions. The M43 was built too late to see service during WW2, though 2 pilot models were sent to Germany during the closing days of the war and tested against the enemy. The 8" cannon had a muzzle velocity of 1950fps and a range of 10.5 miles. The shell weighed 240lbs and was loaded seperate from the powder charge. The vehicle weighed 82,500lbs, of which, 10,000lbs was the cannon alone. The M43 could carry 12 rounds onboard.

Specifications
Weight 82,500 pounds
Crew 8
Length 23' 3" including spade.
Width 10' 4"
Height 10' 10"
Engine Continental R975 C4 395hp
Performance 24mph
Range 100miles on 195 US gallons of gasoline
Armament 8" Howitzer

T84 8" SPG
T84 8" Howitzer Motor Carriage

Only one test vehicle was built. Shown here at APG in early 1945. The T26E1 chassis was used for this experiment. For details see the Medium Tank Section.


T93 8 inch howitzer---T93 8 inch howitzer
T93 8" Howitzer Motor Carriage

Only one test vehicle was built. Shown here at Chrysler in late 1945. The T26E3 chassis was used for this experiment. For details see the Medium Tank Section. The vehicle weighted 132,600lbs and was 37' 3" long.


Photo thanks to Ion Fonosch
Unknown Gun Motor Carriage

Do you have any information?


MarkIII M1 240mm---MarkIII 240mm
240mm Holt Mark III M1, Mark III

The primary vehicle for this type appears to have been the Mark III M1. Only one was made. Two more vehicles were produced after testing and were simply called the Mark III.

Specifications
Weight 109,000 pounds (M1)
106,500 (Mark III)
Length 24' 9.5"
Width 9' 10"
Height 9' 5"
Engine Duesenburg 225hp 6cyl (M1)
Cottrell-Holmes 210hp 8cyl (Mark III)
Transmission 4 speed
Performance 3.6mph
Armament M1918 Schneider 240mm Howitzer
Turning 15' 7.5"

MarkIV and Mark IV-A 240mm---MarkIV 240mm

MarkIV 240mm---MarkIV-A
240mm Caterpillar Mark IV and Mark IV-A

Seen here at Aberdeen Proving Grounds in 1921. The dual unit pictured on the top left was tested in 1920. The Mark IV-A is the unit to the right in the picture and was used for added power and towing and had a gas/electric drive (the Mark IV was perfectly able to run by itself on flat ground). These units were based on a French design by the St. Chamond Company. The 150hp motor drove a 70kw 400 volt generator which in turn drove 70hp electric motors that supplied power to the tracks.

Specifications
Weight 71,500lbs
Length 29' 9"
Width 8' 6"
Height 13'
Engine Gas/Electric
Performance 9mph
Armament M1918 Schneider 240mm Howitzer

T92 240mm howitzer---T92 240mm howitzer
T92 240mm Howitzer Motor Carriage

Using the same carriage as the 8" T93 above, 5 vehicles were constructed by Chrysler in the middle of 1945. The M1 Howitzer was designed to be able to swap barrels with the 8" howitzer. The 240mm could fire a projectile weighing 360lbs some 14 miles. Loading was done by manpower and the rate of fire was only 1 round every 3 minutes.

Specifications
Weight 127,000lbs
Crew 8
Length 31' 10"
Width 11' 1"
Height 10' 7"
Engine Ford GAF-C 1100ci, 500hp
Performance 15 to 20 mph
Armament 240mm M1 Howitzer

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