Metacognition
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"Metacognition"


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Introduction

Metacognition is the process of self-assessment and self-correction. It includes evaluating progress, correcting errors, and implementing and perhaps changing learning strategies. Learning strategies are “activities that help people use their own learning style to best approach new learning“ (http://www.netnet.org/students/student%20glossary.htm#L)

Learners engaged in metacognition think about

  • implementing their preferred learning strategies
  • assessing their progress by answering self-assessment questions or practice questions and determining the degree to which the instruction meets their needs or expectations
  • implementing remedial learning strategies such as re-reading instructional information.

A quintessential metacognitive statement is, “I've got it!” or its converse, “I'm lost.”

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This Week

The central questions we are concerned with this week are:

  • What is metacognition?
  • What are the distinguishable components and characteristics of metacognition?
  • How do metacognitive processes regulate information processing?
  • What is the role of learning strategies and cognitive styles?
  • Is there a connection between expertise and metacognition?
  • What metacognitive strategies can be distinguished and can they be trained?

Click here WEEKLY OVERVIEW to know this week Activities

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What is Metacognition?

Thinking – Knowing – Learning – Control

Metacognition is an important concept in cognitive theory. It consists of two basic processes which occur simultaneously: monitoring your progress as you learn, and making changes and adapting your strategies if you perceive you are not doing so well. Metacognition is about self-reflection, self-responsibility, and initiative as well as goal setting and time management.

“Metacognitive skills include taking conscious control of learning, planning and selecting strategies, monitoring the progress of learning, correcting errors, analyzing the effectiveness of learning strategies, and changing learning behaviors and strategies when necessary." (Ridley et al., 1992)

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Activity 1: Self-Reflection

Read the following text by Hacker (2003): Metacognition – An example from the literature

Many of the thoughts and feelings experienced by this twelfth-grade student as she attempts to take charge of her learning can be described as “metacognitive.” – What makes these thoughts or feelings “metacognitive” as opposed to “cognitive?”

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Metacognition and Learning

Metacognition, or awareness of the process of learning, is an ingredient which is critical for successful learning. Metacognition is the process of self-assessment and self-correction. It includes evaluating progress, correcting errors, and implementing and perhaps changing learning strategies.
More specifically, metacognition consists of three basic elements:
(1) developing a plan of action,
(2) maintaining and monitoring the plan, and
(3) evaluating the plan.

Learners engaged in metacognition think about

  • implementing their preferred learning strategies;
  • assessing their progress by answering self-assessment questions or practice questions and determining the degree to which the instruction meets their needs or expectations
  • implementing remedial learning strategies such as re-reading instructional information.

Please read the text: Metacognition and Learning

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Activity 2: Identify Metacognitive Concepts

Several psychological terms like metacognitive knowledge, skills and experiences have been introduced so far.

Now, think of a complex problem like writing an essay. What are the major metacognitive concepts that are involved in solving this kind of complex problem in your opinion?

Name four metacognitive concepts, describe how they appear in terms of the complex problem (writing an essay) and upload them to the Digital Drop Box

on Blackboard.

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Metacognitive Components and Strategies

Metacognition is at work in students who choose to commit themselves to tasks. In the words of Paris and Cross (1983) they align “skill with will.”

Here are some metacognitive strategies to try:

http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/metacognition/start.htm

To learn more about strategies, read the following text: Components and strategies of metacognition

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Activity 3: Metacognitive Strategies

Name and describe three metacognitive strategies that you consider to be effective. Explain why they are effective and post them to the Metacognitive Strategies discussion board.

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Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles
Learners typically have a set of strategies for how they learn. For example, some learners believe that repetition is critical, whereas other believe that they learn best when they just dive in and try a task or a procedure. Meanwhile, other learners rely heavily on visuals or pictures. – Imagine you are about to take a final exam.

Read the following text: Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles

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Activity 4: Describe Examples

Imagine you are a professor who has to present a paper on models of information processing. Design your presentation to account for all three learning types that were mentioned in the text above ( Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles )

  1. visual
  2. auditory
  3. tactile.

Describe what methods and materials you would use and why in a few sentences and upload them to the Presentation Design discussion board.

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Why are Metacognitive Strategies so Important?

As students become more skilled at using metacognitive strategies, they gain confidence and become more independent as learners. Independence leads to ownership as student's realize they can pursue their own intellectual needs and discover a world of information at their fingertips. The task of educators is to acknowledge, cultivate, exploit, and enhance the metacognitive capabilities of all learners.

 


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